Guide to Women’s Chemises
New app helps Icelanders avoid unintentional incest
Contrary to popular perception, we Icelanders usually are not all tall, blonde and have blue eyes. Although there are lots of Icelanders who fit this stereotype, they’re most definitely not the majority. Plenty of us have black, brown, red hair and every thing in between. Same goes with eye colour; there are people with black and brown eyes too.
Both the Greek royal dynasty, the House of Glücksburg, and the House of Wittelsbach have been deposed. The Lý dynasty which dominated Dai Viet (Vietnam) married its princesses off to regional rivals to establish alliances with them. One of these marriages was between a Lý empress regnant (Lý Chiêu Hoàng) and a member of the Chinese Trần (Chen) clan (Trần Thái Tông), which enabled the Trần to then topple the Lý and established their own Trần dynasty.
This additionally resulted in lots of being descended from a certain particular person via many traces of descent, such as the quite a few European royalty descended from Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom or King Christian IX of Denmark. The House of Habsburg was infamous for inbreeding, with the Habsburg lip cited as an sick effect, although no genetic evidence has proved the allegation.
A Khotanese princess who was the daughter of the King of Khotan married Cao Yanlu. The ethnically Chinese Cao family ruling Guiyi Circuit established marriage alliances with the Uighurs of the Ganzhou Kingdom, with each the Cao rulers marrying Uighur princesses and with Cao princesses marrying Uighur rulers. The Ganzhou Uighur Khagan’s daughter was married to Cao Yijin in 916.
Tang dynasty (618–907) emperors gave princesses in marriage to rulers of the Uyghur Khaganate to consolidate the special commerce and military relationship that developed after the Khaganate supported the Chinese during the An Lushan Rebellion. At least three Tang imperial princesses are recognized to have married khagans between 758 and 821. The Xianbei Tuoba royal household of Northern Wei began to rearrange for Han Chinese elites to marry daughters of the royal household within the 480s.
In France, according to a source printed 1939, blondism is extra widespread in Normandy, and fewer widespread within the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean seacoast; 26% of French inhabitants has blond or light brown hair. A 2007 study of French females confirmed that by then roughly 20% were blonde, though half of these blondes have been fully pretend. Roughly ten p.c of French females are natural blondes, of which 60% bleach their hair to a lighter tone of blond.
But since employees earn more, customers typically pay more for goods. The regional distribution of hair shade in France follows carefully that of stature.
Aisin Gioro women have been married to the sons of the Han Chinese Generals Sun Sike (Sun Ssu-ok’o) 孫思克, Geng Jimao (Keng Chi-mao), Shang Kexi (Shang K’o-hsi), and Wu Sangui (Wu San-kuei). The Chinese Cao family ruling Guiyi Circuit established marriage alliances with the Saka Kingdom of Khotan, with each the Cao rulers marrying Khotanese princesses and with Cao princesses marrying Khotanese rulers.
Why you should go to the Westman Islands in Iceland
Marriages between the Swazi, Zulu and Thembu royal houses of southern Africa are frequent. For example, the daughter of former South African president and Thembu royal Nelson Mandela, Zenani Mandela, married Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini, a brother of Mswati III, King of Swaziland. Elsewhere in the area, Princess Semane Khama of the Bamangwato tribe of Botswana married Kgosi Lebone Edward Molotlegi of the Bafokeng tribe of South Africa. Based on info 4 5 inch colt stretchy black waterproof butt plug with suction cup from the Icelandic National Police, native information sources, and previous reporting, crime continues to be decrease than in most developed countries and countries of similar size and demographics. The notion that blonds are much less intelligent just isn’t grounded actually.
The Norse goddess Sif and the medieval heroine Iseult were both significantly portrayed as blond and, in medieval artwork, Eve, Mary Magdalene, and the Virgin Mary are sometimes shown with blond hair. In modern western culture, blond women are often negatively stereotyped as sexually engaging, but unintelligent. Because hair shade tends to darken with age, pure blond hair is considerably less frequent in maturity.
The British filmmaker Alfred Hitchcock preferred to solid blonde girls for major roles in his films as he believed that the viewers would suspect them the least, comparing them to “virgin snow that reveals up the bloody footprints”, therefore the time period Hitchcock blonde. This stereotype has turn out to be so ingrained it has spawned counter-narratives, corresponding to within the 2001 film Legally Blonde in which Elle Woods, played by Reese Witherspoon, succeeds at Harvard despite biases against her magnificence and blond hair.
Knud, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and Princess Caroline-Mathilde of Denmark, married in 1933, have been first cousins and members of the House of Glücksburg, as male-line grandchildren of Frederick VIII of Denmark. There are additionally quite a few circumstances of intramarriage between cadet branches within the ruling families from the Arabian Peninsula, together with the House of Saud, the House of Al Sabah, the House of Khalifa, the House of Al Thani, and the House of Al Said. Other such examples embrace Prince Hamzah bin Hussein and Princess Noor bint Asem , Hussein of Jordan and Dina bint Abdul-Hamid , Talal of Jordan and Zein Al-Sharaf Talal , and Ghazi of Iraq and Aliya bint Ali , all from the Hashemite dynasty.
The Christian Byzantines and Serbians, in addition to the Muslim beyliks of Germiyan, Saruhan, Karaman and Dulkadir were all potential enemies and marriage was seen as a way of securing alliances with them. Marriage with foreign dynasties seems collars to have ceased in 1504, with the last marriage of a sultan to a overseas princess being that of Murad II and Mara Branković, daughter of the Serbian ruler Đurađ Branković, in 1435.
The Shiwei individuals were a Mongolic-talking ethnic group who have been blond-haired and blue eyed. Blond hair can still be seen amongst individuals from the region they inhabited, even right now. The Xianbei had been one other Mongol tribe with blond hair and blue eyes according to Chinese historical chronicles. The Mongolian warlord, Bodonchar Munkhag, a direct ancestor of Genghis Khan, was said to have blond hair. His mom, Alan Goa, described an encounter with an unidentified blond man who she referred to, affectionately, as a yellow dog.
The Greeks stereotyped Thracians and slaves as blond and the Romans associated blondness with the Celts and the Germans to the north. In western Europe through the Middle Ages, lengthy, blond hair was idealized as the paragon of female beauty.
Okay, technically all people all over the place is related, however in Iceland people are way more associated than they’re in, say, the United States. The population of Iceland at present is about 320,000, and, accord to the family tree web site islendingabok.is, the entire inhabitants of native Icelanders derives from a single family tree.
In Portugal, the national common of the inhabitants exhibits eleven% of varying traces of blondism, peaking at 15% blond folks in Póvoa de Varzim in northern Portugal. With the exception of Benevento and the encompassing space in Campania, where various shades of blond hair were current in 10–15% of the inhabitants, Southern Italy as a complete averaged between 2.5% and 7.four%. AD one thousand, in what is called the kristnitaka, and the nation, while mostly secular in observance, continues to be predominantly Christian culturally. The Lutheran church claims some eighty four% of the whole population. While early Icelandic Christianity was more lax in its observances than conventional Catholicism, Pietism, a religious motion imported from Denmark in the 18th century, had a marked effect on the island.
As the Icelandic news site News of Iceland says, that’s enough people that not everybody knows each other, however few enough to imply that two Icelanders who are relationship might truly be cousins. I’ve heard the elf thing mentioned in tired travel articles (normally wedged between paragraphs on the great thing about waterfalls and tips for eating ram testicles), however I personally know no one on this island who believes in elves. As for Alcoa, their rep believes Lewis is likely referring to a regulation concerning environmental-influence assessments. The evaluation includes an archaeological survey to make sure no important artifacts or ruins are destroyed, and the site’s historical past is also surveyed to see if it was ever named in any Icelandic folklore. But if you’re going to introduce the notion that some sort of Ministry of Elf Inspection exists throughout the ranks of the Icelandic government, you may as properly also notice that we take the Hogwart’s Express to the workplace every day.
In Western tradition, blond hair has long been associated with feminine magnificence. Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and wonder, was described as having blond hair. In ancient Greece and Rome, blond hair was regularly related to prostitutes, who dyed their hair using saffron dyes so as to appeal to prospects.
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Are Icelanders blonde?
In Iceland, everybody is related. As the Icelandic news site News of Iceland says, that’s enough people that not everyone knows each other, but few enough to mean that two Icelanders who are dating might actually be cousins.
There are solely five, altogether housing fewer than 200 prisoners. I had visited them each earlier than, and they left me intrigued. In Iceland, approximately ninety two % of the nation’s working population is a part of a labor union. Consequently, individuals who work jobs that Americans would possibly contemplate “low-wage”—especially jobs in the service business—earn a lot greater wages and enjoy more advantages. In reality, the nationwide monthly minimum wage for most industries is 300,000 ISK, or about $2500 per month.
Are people in Iceland inbred?
A new smartphone app is on hand to help Icelanders avoid accidental incest. The app lets users “bump” phones, and emits a warning alarm if they are closely related. Arnar Freyr Adalsteinsson, one of the trio, said it allows any two Icelanders to see how closely related they are, simply by touching phones.
Because many Greek slaves have been captured from Thrace, slaves were stereotyped as blond or red-headed. “Xanthias” (Ξανθίας), that means “reddish blond”, was a typical title for slaves in ancient Greece and a slave by this title seems in most of the comedies of Aristophanes. A team of multi-nationwide stainless steel sperm stopper ring 30mm diameter archaeologists have found the two,500 year outdated mummy of a blond man, years previous, in the Altai area of Mongolia. Chinese historical paperwork describe blond haired, blue-eyed warriors among the Xiongnu, a nomadic equestrian tradition from Mongolia, who practiced Tengriism.
other dildos of black and really dark brown hair are discovered not within the typically Alpine country, however alongside the slope of the Pyrenees, in Catalan-speaking nation, and on the Mediterranean seacoast. Blond hair is commonest alongside the Channel, in areas settled by Saxons and Normans, in Burgundy and the country bordering Switzerland, and down the course of the Rhône. In northern France it appears to observe upstream the rivers which empty into the Channel. In the identical method, the northeastern French departments are probably as light-haired as a few of the provinces of southern Germany. Originating in Europe, the “blonde stereotype” can also be related to being much less critical or much less clever.
In the 1950s, the American actress Marilyn Monroe’s screen persona centered on her blond hair and the stereotypes related to it, especially dumbness, naïveté, sexual availability and artificiality. She typically used a breathy, infantile voice in her films, and in interviews appeared that everything she mentioned was “utterly harmless and uncalculated”, parodying herself with double entendres that got here to be known as “Monroeisms”. For example, when she was asked what she had on within the 1949 nude picture shoot, she replied, “I had the radio on”. Monroe typically wore white to emphasise her blondness, and drew attention by sporting revealing outfits that confirmed off her figure. Although Monroe’s typecast display screen persona as a dim-witted but sexually engaging blonde was a fastidiously crafted act, audiences and film critics believed it to be her real character and did not realize that she was solely performing.
By this time, the Ottomans had consolidated their power in the area and absorbed or subjugated lots of their former rivals, and so marriage alliances have been now not seen as important to their overseas policy. After the Second Manchu invasion of Korea, Joseon Korea was pressured to give several of their royal princesses as concubines to the Qing Manchu regent Prince Dorgon. She was a collateral department of the Korean royal family, and daughter of Yi Gae-yun (李愷胤). The “Dolo efu” 和碩額駙 rank was given to husbands of Qing princesses. A daughter 和硕柔嘉公主 of the Manchu Aisin Gioro Prince Yolo 岳樂 (Prince An) was wedded to Geng Juzhong 耿聚忠 who was another son of Geng Jingmao.
- The Lý dynasty which dominated Dai Viet (Vietnam) married its princesses off to regional rivals to determine alliances with them.
- This occurs to avoid inbreeding, since many royal households share frequent ancestors, and due to this fact share a lot of the genetic pool.
- In trendy instances, amongst European royalty a minimum of, marriages between royal dynasties have turn into much rarer than they as soon as had been.
- Both Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Juan Carlos I of Spain have married members of the Greek royal family, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark and Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark respectively.
- Both the Greek royal dynasty, the House of Glücksburg, and the House of Wittelsbach have been deposed.
The marriages of Ottoman sultans and their sons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries tended to be with members of the ruling dynasties of neighbouring powers. With little regard for faith, the sultans contracted marriages with each Christians and Muslims; the aim of these royal intermarriages had been purely tactical.
Blonde jokes are a category of jokes based on the stereotype of blonde women as unintelligent. In Brazil, this extends to blonde women being looked down, as reflected in sexist jokes, as also sexually licentious. It is believed the originator of the dumb blonde was an eighteenth-century blonde French prostitute named Rosalie Duthé whose popularity of being stunning however dumb impressed a play about her known as Les Curiosites de la Foire (Paris 1775). Blonde actresses have contributed to this perception; some of them embrace Marilyn Monroe, Judy Holliday, Jayne Mansfield, and Goldie Hawn during her time at Laugh-In.
In fashionable occasions, among European royalty no less than, marriages between royal dynasties have turn out to be a lot rarer than they once were. This happens to avoid inbreeding, since many royal families share common ancestors, and due to this fact share a lot of the genetic pool. Both Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Juan Carlos I of Spain have married members of the Greek royal family, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark and Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark respectively. In 1993, Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein married Duchess Sophie in Bavaria, a member of the House of Wittelsbach.
Is everyone in Iceland related to each other?
Actually there is some evidence that Icelanders are a touch inbred, though that just means that they have a low longer term effective population and little gene flow with other groups. By analogy, consider a set of biracial siblings.
In contemporary in style tradition, blonde women are stereotyped as being more sexually engaging to males than ladies with different hair colours. For example, Anita Loos popularized this concept in her 1925 novel Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Some women have reported they feel different people anticipate them to be more enjoyable-loving after having lightened their hair. Medieval Scandinavian art and literature typically locations emphasis on the size and colour of a woman’s hair, contemplating long, blond hair to be the perfect.
The carefully related houses of Habsburg, Bourbon, Braganza and Wittelsbach[n 10] additionally engaged in first-cousin unions regularly and in double-cousin and uncle-niece marriages often. This similar precept meant that, while Ottoman men have been free to marry Christian ladies, Muslim princesses were prevented from marrying Christian princes. Religion has all the time been carefully tied to European political affairs, and as such it played an essential role during marriage negotiations. The 1572 wedding ceremony in Paris of the French princess Margaret of Valois to the leader of France’s Huguenots, Henry III of Navarre, was ostensibly arranged to effect a rapprochement between the nation’s Catholics and Protestants, but proved a ruse for the St. Bartholomew’s Day bloodbath. Other ruling homes, such as the Romanovs[n four] and Habsburgs, have at occasions additionally insisted on dynastic marriages solely being contracted with people of a certain religion or those keen to transform.
Chris Burkard shares uncommon photographs of Iceland’s glacial rivers in a stunning new book
The OED also records that blond as an adjective is very used with reference to women, during which case it’s more likely to be spelt “blonde”, citing three Victorian usages of the time period. The masculine version is used in the plural, in “blonds of the European race”, in a quotation from 1833 Penny cyclopedia, which distinguishes genuine blondness as a Caucasian characteristic distinct from albinism. The first Europeans to to migrate to and settle in Greenland were Icelanders who did so underneath the management of Erik the Red within the late 10th century CE and numbered round 500 folks. Isolated fjords in this harsh land provided sufficient grazing to help cattle and sheep, although the climate was too cold for cereal crops.
Does Iceland smell like a fart?
Everything smells like farts But it’s undeniable that when you run a tap in Iceland, out flows a stench like rotting eggs mixed with hangover farts. The water in Iceland is heated by harnessing the volcanic landscapes geothermal energy, which then then runs straight to your tap.
A important majority of Caucasian girls (maybe as high as three in four)[clarification wanted] dye their hair blond, a considerably larger percentage than for another hair colour. “Blond” and “blonde” are also often used to refer to things which have a color reminiscent of truthful hair. For example, the OED information its use in nineteenth rimba sheer white crotchless g string thong for her-century poetic diction to explain flowers, “a variety of clay ironstone of the coal measures”, “the color of raw silk”, a breed of ray, lager beer, and pale wood. Detail of a portrait of Crown Prince of Poland Sigismund Casimir Vasa (c. 1644), with attribute blond hair which darkened with time as confirmed by his later effigies. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, scientific racists categorized blond hair and blue eyes as traits of the supreme Nordic race.
During the early years of the Roman Empire, blond hair was associated with prostitutes. The desire changed to bleaching the hair blond when Greek tradition, which practiced bleaching, reached Rome, and was bolstered when the legions that conquered Gaul returned with blond slaves. Sherrow also states that Roman girls tried to lighten their hair, however the substances typically triggered hair loss, so that they resorted to wigs produced from the captives’ hair.
In the early twentieth century racialist and supremacist thinkers promulgated the idea that human features such as blond hair and blue eyes had been hallmarks of a “master race”. Propaganda in Nazi Germany often featured folks with blond hair and blue eyes, said to embody features of a “grasp race”.
When in 1926 Astrid of Sweden married Leopold III of Belgium, it was agreed that her kids can be raised as Catholics however she was not required to give up Lutheranism, though she selected to convert in 1930. Some potential matches had been abandoned because of irreconcilable religious variations. For example vibra cup clear textured tube wand attachment for him, plans for the marriage of the Catholic Władysław IV Vasa and the Lutheran Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine proved unpopular with Poland’s largely Catholic nobility and have been quietly dropped. In 1920, Crown Prince Yi Un of Korea married Princess Masako of Nashimoto and, in May 1931, Yi Geon, grandson of Gojong of Korea, was married to Matsudaira Yosiko, a cousin of Princess Masako.
The Japanese saw these marriages as a method to secure their colonial rule of Korea and introduce Japanese blood in to the Korean royal House of Yi. The Goryeo Dynasty had a history of incestuous marriage inside the royal family in its early years, ranging from Gwangjong, the fourth king, who married his half-sister Queen Daemok. To avoid scandals, the female members of the dynasty would be ceremonially adopted by their maternal households after birth.
These people had been primarily of Norwegian, Irish or Gaelic Scottish origin. The Irish and the Scottish Gaels had been either slaves or servants of the Norse chiefs, according to the Icelandic sagas, or descendants of a “group of Norsemen who had settled in Scotland and Ireland and intermarried with Gaelic-speaking folks”. Genetic evidence suggests that roughly 62% of the Icelandic maternal gene pool is derived from Ireland and Scotland, which is way larger than different Scandinavian countries, though similar to the Faroese, whereas 37% is of Nordic origin. About 20-25% of the Icelandic paternal gene pool is of Gaelic origin, with the remainder being Nordic. Over time, due to the relatively restricted number of potential consorts, the gene pool of many ruling families grew progressively smaller, until all European royalty was associated.
What is Iceland’s crime rate?
Contrary to popular belief, we Icelanders are not all tall, blonde and have blue eyes. Although there are many Icelanders who fit this stereotype, they are most certainly not the majority. Same goes with eye color; there are people with black and brown eyes too.
Since the 20th century, archaeologists have uncovered a variety of fossils and histotical documents from Asia, indicating an historical presence of blond haired people there. These embrace the well-known mummies of the Tarim Basin, such as Yingpan man, a blond 4th century BCE mummy, who is presumed to have been a Sogdian. Analysis of his extravagant clothing advised international origins. Geneticist David Reich mentioned that the derived SNP for blond hair entered continental Europe by means of an enormous population migration from the Eurasian steppe, by a individuals who had substantial Ancient North Eurasian ancestry. “Blond”, with its continued gender-diversified utilization, is certainly one of few adjectives in written English to retain separate lexical genders.
What is the most inbred country?
Inbreeding levels in different countries. Data on inbreeding in several contemporary human populations are compared, showing the highest local rates of inbreeding to be in Brazil, Japan, India, and Israel.
Royal trade ships from Norway often went to Greenland to trade for walrus tusks and falcons. The population ultimately reached a excessive level of perhaps 3,000 in two communities and developed impartial establishments before fading away in the course of the 15th century. A papal legation was despatched there as late as 1492, the year Columbus tried to discover a shorter spice path to Asia however as an alternative encountered the Americas.
Blond hair is most common in gentle-skinned infants and youngsters, so much in order that the term “child blond” is commonly used for very gentle coloured hair. Babies could also be born with blond hair even amongst teams where adults not often have blond hair, though such pure hair usually falls out shortly. Blond hair tends to turn darker with age, and plenty of children’s blond hair turns gentle, medium, dark brown or black earlier than or throughout their grownup years. Because blond hair tends to show brown with age, pure blond hair is significantly much less common in adulthood; in accordance with the sociologist Christie Davies, only around five percent of adults in Europe and North America are naturally blond. A research conducted in 2003 concluded that only four % of American adults are naturally blond.
Some Han Chinese exiled royalty fled from southern China and defected to the Xianbei. Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei’s sister the Shouyang Princess was wedded to The Liang dynasty ruler Emperor Wu of Liang’s son Xiao Zong 蕭綜. Marriage policy in imperial China differed from dynasty to dynasty. Several dynasties practiced Heqin, which concerned marrying off princesses to different royal households.
Naturally-occurring blond hair is primarily present in populations of northern European descent and will have evolved to enable extra environment friendly synthesis of vitamin D, due to northern Europe’s decrease ranges of sunlight. Blond hair has additionally developed in other populations, though it is normally not as frequent, and may be discovered amongst natives of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji, among the Berbers of North Africa, and amongst some Asians. Iceland’s males’s national football staff participated in their first FIFA World Cup in 2018, after reaching the quarter finals of its first major international event, UEFA Euro 2016.
According to Francis Owen, Roman literary information describe a large number of properly-known Roman historic personalities as blond. In the fifth century BC, the sculptor Pheidias might have depicted the Greek goddess of wisdom 1 5 inch stretchy brown penis extender Athena’s hair using gold in his famous statue of Athena Parthenos, which was displayed inside the Parthenon. The Greeks considered the Thracians who lived to the north as having reddish-blond hair.
When the Eastern Jin dynasty ended Northern Wei obtained the Jin prince Sima Chuzhi 司馬楚之 as a refugee. A Northern Wei Princess married Sima Chuzhi, giving delivery to Sima Jinlong 司馬金龍. Northern Liang King Juqu Mujian’s daughter married Sima Jinlong. A Lý princess also married into the Hồ family 2 5k gold vibrator stolen in sexy heist, which was additionally of Chinese origin and later established the Hồ dynasty which additionally took energy after having a Tran princess marry considered one of their members, Hồ Quý Ly. Iceland is a small nation tucked away on the edge of Europe.
Tell us you’ve by no means heard of Iceland.
In Norse mythology, the goddess Sif has famously blond hair, which some students have recognized as representing golden wheat. In the Old Norse Gunnlaug Saga, Helga the Beautiful, described as “the most lovely lady on the planet”, is claimed to have hair that is “as truthful as overwhelmed gold” and so long that it could “envelope her totally”. In the Poetic Edda poem Rígsþula, the blond man Jarl is taken into account to be the ancestor of the dominant warrior class. In Northern European folklore, supernatural beings value blond hair in humans. Blond infants usually tend to be stolen and replaced with changelings, and younger blonde ladies are more likely to be lured away to the land of the beings.
The Manchu Imperial Aisin Gioro clan practiced marriage alliances with Han Chinese Ming Generals and Mongol princes. Aisin Gioro women had been married to Han Chinese Generals who defected to the Manchu aspect during the Manchu conquest of China.
Dating your relations accidentally is a standard enough drawback for Icelanders that there’s now an app to help individuals keep away from it
Blonde hair are additionally found in another parts of the South Pacific, such because the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji, once more with higher incidences in kids. Blond hair in Melanesians is brought on by an amino acid change in the gene TYRP1. This mutation is at a frequency of 26% within the Solomon Islands and is absent outside of Oceania. A variety of blond naturally mummified bodies of frequent folks (i.e. not proper mummies) dating to Roman instances have been found in the Fagg El Gamous cemetery in Egypt. “Of those whose hair was preserved fifty four% have been blondes or redheads, and the share grows to 87% when light-brown hair shade is added.” Excavations have been ongoing because the Nineteen Eighties.
The 7 best methods to spend your cash in Iceland, according to locals
By discouraging all however religious leisure activities, it fostered a certain dourness, which was for a long time thought of an Icelandic stereotype. At the same time, it also led to a growth in printing, and Iceland today is likely one of the most literate societies in the world. Following Ingólfur, and likewise in 874, one other group of Norwegians set sail throughout the North Atlantic Ocean with their families, livestock, slaves, and possessions, escaping the domination of the first King of Norway, Harald Fairhair. They traveled 1,000 km (600 mi) in their Viking longships to the island of Iceland.